Dog STRs


As with human DNA, genetic material obtained from dogs contains short tandem repeat (STR) markers that are highly variable among individuals and thus useful in differentiating between animals. Below is a list of some of the canine STR loci described in the literature thus far.


Loci

 

Locus

Canine Chromosome

Repeat Motif

Size Range

Reference

PEZ01

7

TACA

95 – 136 bp

StockMarks kit

PEZ02

17

GGAA

104 – 144 bp

Tom et al. 2010

PEZ03

19

GAA

95 – 154 bp

StockMarks kit

PEZ05

12

TTTA

92 – 116 bp

Tom et al. 2010
StockMarks kit

PEZ15

16

AGAA

183 – 249 bp

Berger et al. 2009

PEZ16

27

GAAA

281 – 332 bp

Tom et al. 2010

PEZ17

4

GAAA

191 – 225 bp

Tom et al. 2010

PEZ20

22

AAAT

152 – 202 bp

StockMarks kit

PEZ21

2

AAAT

83 – 103 bp

Tom et al. 2010

FH2001

23

GATA

119 – 160 bp

Tom et al. 2010

FH2004

11

AAAG

233 – 325 bp
161 – 257 bp

Tom et al. 2010
van Asch et al. 2009

FH2010

24

ATGA
TTCA

222 – 243 bp
154 – 170 bp

Tom et al. 2010
van Asch et al. 2009
StockMarks kit

FH2017

15

AGGT/AGAT/GATA

257 – 276 bp

Tom et al. 2010

FH2054

12

GATA

139 – 177 bp

Tom et al. 2010
Finnzymes kit
StockMarks kit

FH2088

15

TTTA/TTCA

94 – 138 bp

Tom et al. 2010

FH2107

3

GAAA

292 – 426 bp

Tom et al. 2010

FH2309

1

GAAA

340 – 428 bp

Tom et al. 2010

FH2328

33

GAAA

171 – 213 bp

Tom et al. 2010

FH2361

33

GAAA

TTTC

323 – 439 bp

231 – 347 bp

Tom et al. 2010
van Asch et al. 2009

FH2079

24

GGAT

263 – 299 bp

Berger et al. 2009
StockMarks kit

FH3313

19

GAAA

341 – 446 bp

Tom et al. 2010

FH3377

3

GAAAA

183 – 305 bp

Tom et al. 2010

FH2658

14

GAAA

106 – 138 bp

van Asch et al. 2009

FH3210

2

AAGA

230 – 315 bp

van Asch et al. 2009

FH3241

8

TTCT

250 – 270 bp

van Asch et al. 2009

FH4012

15

TTTC

119 – 143 bp

van Asch et al. 2009

REN214L11

16

GAAT

154 – 162 bp

van Asch et al. 2009

C38

38

TTCT

132 – 217 bp

van Asch et al. 2009

VWF.X

27

AGGAAT

151 – 187 bp

Tom et al. 2010

IPAX1 X AGAT 122 - 134 bp van Asch et al. 2010
IPAX2 X ATAG 171 - 183 bp van Asch et al. 2010
IPAX3 X AAAT 287 - 303 bp van Asch et al. 2010
IPAX4 X AGAA 296 - 316 bp van Asch et al. 2010
IPAX5 X TTTC 249 - 274 bp van Asch et al. 2010
IPAX6 X AAAT 125 - 145 bp van Asch et al. 2010
IPAX7 X TTCT   86 - 122 bp van Asch et al. 2010
IPAX8 X AAAG 294 - 314 bp van Asch et al. 2010
IPAX9 X TTTC 206 - 238 bp van Asch et al. 2010
IPAX10 X ATAA 209 - 217 bp van Asch et al. 2010
POLA104 X AAAT 306 - 334 bp van Asch et al. 2010
FH2548 X TTTC 199 - 219 bp van Asch et al. 2010
         

New Tetranucleotide STR Loci described in Wictum et al. 2012 (information kindly supplied by Elizabeth Wictum, bethw@ucdavis.edu)

Locus Name Canine Chromosome Repeat Motif Size Range, bp Size Range, repeats Repeat Structure
VGL0760 7: 60065445 AAGA 276-340 11-27.2 [AAGA]n AAAA [GAAA]n AAGA
           
VGL0910 9: 10224058 GAAA 282-350 12-27.1 [GAAA]n GAAC
           
VGL1063 10: 63191724 AAAG 86-138 8-22 AAAA [AAAG]n AAAT [AAAG]n
           
VGL1165 11: 65356234 TTTC 191-271 13-33 [TTTC]n TTTT [TTTC]n 
           
VGL1541 15: 41210435 CTTT 184-240 13-27 [CTTT]n CTTC [TTTC]2 TTTT CTTT CATT
           
VGL1606 16: 6468079 GAAA 272-340 11-26.3 [GAAA]n
           
VGL1828 18: 28419883 TTCT 220-284 12-28 [TTCT]n TTTT [TTCT]n TTCG
           
VGL2009 20: 9290711 TATC 144-184 7-18 [TATC]n TACC [TATC]7 TATG
           
VGL2136 21: 36673167 AAGA 91-135 8-19 [AAGA]n
           
VGL2409 24: 9197210 [AATT] [CTTT] 108-156 11-22 [AATT]2 [CTTT]n CTTG
           
VGL2918 29: 18216971 ATAG 188-260 7-23.3 [ATAG]n ATAA
           
VGL3008 30: 8845920 GGCT TGCT TTCT 110-178 10-26 [GGCT]1-3 [TGCT]1-3 [TTCT]n
           
VGL3112 31: 12944088 GATA 185-217 10-18 [GATA]2-3 AATA [GATA]n
           
VGL3235 32: 35527890 AAAG 267-327 9-23 [AAAG]n
           
VGL3438 34: 38458581 AGAA 136-188 10-23 [AGAA]n

Population Data

[Excel file] Wictum, E., et al. (2012) Developmental validation of DogFiler, a novel multiplex for canine DNA profiling in forensic casework, Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. (in press), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.07.001.

[Excel file] Kanthaswamy, S., et al. (2009). Canine population data generated from a multiplex STR kit for use in forensic casework. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54, 829-840.

 

Publications:

Berger, B., et al. (2008). Forensic canine STR analysis. In Coyle, H.M. (ed.) Nonhuman DNA Typing: Theory and Casework Applications. Boca Raton: CRC Press; Chapter 4, pp. 45-68.

Berger, C., et al. (2009). Canine DNA profiling in forensic casework: the tail wagging the dog. Forensic Science Review, 21, 1-14.

Brauner, P., et al. (2001). DNA profiling of trace evidence —mitigating evidence in a dog biting case. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46, 1232-1234.

Clarke, M., & Vandenberg, N. (2010). Dog attack: the application of canine DNA profiling in forensic casework. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, 6, 151-157.

Dayton, M., et al. (2009). Developmental validation of short tandem repeat reagent kit for forensic DNA profiling of canine biological material. Croatian Medical Journal, 50, 268-285.

DeNise, S., et al. (2004). Power of exclusion for parentage verification and probability of match for identity in American Kennel Club breeds using 17 canine microsatellite markers. Animal Genetics, 35, 14-17.

Eichmann, C., et al. (2004). A proposed nomenclature for 15 canine-specific polymorphic STR loci for forensic purposes. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 118, 249-266.

Eichmann, C., et al. (2004). Canine-specific STR typing of saliva traces on dog bite wounds. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 118, 337-342.

Eichmann, C., et al. (2005). Estimating the probability of identity in a random dog population using 15 highly polymorphic canine STR markers. Forensic Science International, 151, 37-44.

Halverson, J., et al. (1999). Microsatellite sequences for canine genotyping. U.S. Patent 5,874,217.

Halverson, J., & Basten, C. (2005). A PCR multiplex and database for forensic DNA identification of dogs. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 50, 352-363.

Hellmann, A.P., et al. (2006). A proposal for standardization in forensic canine DNA typing: allele nomenclature of six canine-specific STR loci. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51, 274-281.

Ichikawa, Y., et al. (2001). Canine parentage testing based on microsatellite polymorphisms. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Science, 63, 1209-1213.

ISAG Canine Marker Panels: http://www.isag.org.uk/ISAG/all/2005ISAGPanelDOG.pdf

Kanthaswamy, S. (2009). Development and validation of a standardized canine STR panel for use in forensic casework. Final report for NIJ Grant 2004-DN-BX-K007. Available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/226639.pdf.

Kanthaswamy, S., et al. (2009). Canine population data generated from a multiplex STR kit for use in forensic casework. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54, 829-840.

Koskinen, M.T., & Bredbacka, P. (1999) A convenient and efficient microsatellite-based assay for resolving parentages in dogs. Animal Genetics, 30, 148-149.

Muller, S., et al. (1999). Use of canine microsatellite polymorphisms in forensic examinations. Journal of Heredity, 90, 55-56.

Pádár, Z., et al. (2001). Canine microsatellite polymorphisms as the resolution of an illegal animal death case in a Hungarian zoological gardens. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 115, 79-81.

Pádár, Z., et al. (2002). Canine STR analyses in forensic practice: observation of a possible mutation in a dog hair. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 116, 286-288.

 Shutler, G.G., et al. (1999). Removal of a PCR inhibitor and resolution of DNA STR types in mixed human-canine stains from a five year old case. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44, 623-626.

Sundqvist, A.-K., et al. (2008). Wolf or dog? Genetic identification of predators from saliva collected around bite wounds on prey. Conservation Genetics, 9, 1275-1279.

Sutter, N.B., & Ostrander, E.A. (2004). Dog star rising: the canine genetic system. Nature Reviews Genetics, 5, 900-910.

Tom, B.K., et al. (2010). Development of a nomenclature system for a canine STR multiplex reagent kit. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55, 597-604.

van Asch, B., et al. (2009). A new autosomal STR nineplex for canine identification and parentage testing. Electrophoresis, 30, 417-423.

van Asch, B., Alves, C., Santos, L., Pinheiro, R., Pereira, F., Gusmão, L., Amorim, A. (2010). Genetic profiles and sex identification of found-dead wolves determined by the use of an 11-loci PCR multiplex. Forensic Science International: Genetics,  4, 68–72.

van Asch, B., et al. (2010). A framework for the development of STR genotyping in domestic animal species: characterization and population study of 12 canine X-chromosome loci. Electrophoresis, 31, 303-308.

Wictum, E., et al. (2012) Developmental validation of DogFiler, a novel multiplex for canine DNA profiling in forensic casework, Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. (in press), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.07.001.

Zenke, P., et al. (2011). Population genetic study in Hungarian canine populations using forensically informative STR loci. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 5, e31-e36.

 

[Return to STRBase]

Last Updated: 08/01/2012