Core STR Loci Used in Human Identity Testing

Common sets of short tandem repeat (STR) markers or "core loci" are required for entry of DNA genotype data into national or international databases used to link serial crimes and offenders. Core loci, like a single currency in a financial sense, permits equivalent genetic information to be shared and compared. These same STR loci are often used in other applications of human identity testing such as parentage testing and missing persons and mass disaster investigations due to the availability of commercial STR kits. It is worth noting that these core STR loci occur in between genes where a high degree of variability is tolerated and are thus not directly responsible for physical traits such as hair color or eye color or genetic diseases.

For more information, see: Butler, J.M. (2006) Genetics and genomics of core STR loci used in human identity testing. J. Forensic Sci. 51(2): 253-265.

[STR Fact Sheets] [Variant Alleles] [Tri-allelic Patterns] [Mutation Rates] [Additional STRs]

U.S. Core Loci (since 1997): CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOXVWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, and Amelogenin

Expanded U.S. Core Loci (required after January 1, 2017): original 13 STRs CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOXVWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11 and additional 7 STRs  D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D10S1248, D12S391, D19S433, D22S1045, and Amelogenin

For more information, see Hares, D.R. (2015) Selection and implementation of expanded CODIS core loci in the United States. Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 17:33-34


European Standard Set (ESS): FGA, TH01VWA, D1S1656, D2S441, D3S1358, D8S1179D10S1248, D12S391, D18S51, D21S11, D22S1045

Additional Loci (part of European STR kits): D2S1338, D16S539, D19S433, SE33, Amelogenin



UK Core Loci (SGM Plus kit): FGA, TH01, VWA, D2S1338D3S1358D8S1179, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, Amelogenin

DNA17 (required after July 2014):   


German Core Loci: FGA, TH01, SE33, VWA, D3S1358D8S1179, D18S51, D21S11, Amelogenin  

Interpol Standard Set of Loci: FGA, TH01, VWA, D3S1358D8S1179, D18S51, D21S11; Optional: Amelogenin



Last Updated: 08/26/2015